Not sure what all the parts of your roof are and how they work together? We hope that our Roofing Glossary will help you understand the terms used when talking with a roofing contractor. If you have any additional questions, please do not hesitate to contact us at (480) 689-5055.
The following is a list of terms or phrases commonly used in the roofing industry. Each term is accompanied by a brief definition.
An asphalt-based cement used to bond roofing materials. Also known as flashing cement or mastic; should conform to ASTM D 4586 (Asbestos Free) or ASTM D 2822 (Asbestos Containing).
A brownish-black solid or semisolid mixture of bitumens obtained from native deposits or as a petroleum byproduct, used in paving, roofing and waterproofing.
Fine mineral matter applied to the backside of shingles to keep them from sticking.
That portion of the flashing attached to or resting on the deck to direct the flow of water onto the roof covering.
Bubbles that may appear on the surface of asphalt roofing after installation.
Airborne burning embers released from a fire.
A method of re-roofing with metric-sized shingles.
A flat or low-sloped roof consisting of multiple layers of asphalt and ply sheets.
A package of shingles. There are 3, 4 or 5 bundles per square. A group of shingles held together, as by tying or wrapping.
The lower edge of the shingle tabs.
A beveled strip placed in the angle between a roof and a wall against which the roof abuts so as to avoid a sharp bend in the roofing material.
Surface sheet for most built up roof systems. Can be made of organic asphalt products or modified asphalt products.
To fill a joint with mastic or asphalt cement to prevent leaks.
See Asphalt Roofing Cement.
A line made on the roof by snapping a taut string or cord dust with chalk. Used for alignment purposes.
The highest fire-resistance rating for roofing as per ASTM E-108. Indicates roofing is able to withstand severe exposure to fire originating from sources outside the building.
Fire-resistance rating that indicates roofing material is able to withstand moderate exposure to fire originating from sources outside the building.
Fire-resistance rating that indicates roofing material is able to withstand light exposure to fire originating from sources outside the building.
A method of valley treatment in which shingles from one side of the valley extend across the valley while shingles from the other side are trimmed 2 inches from the valley centerline. The valley flashing is not exposed.
Has an asphalt and sand finish. The finish keeps the asphalt or adhesive from seeping through sheet.
A layer of viscous asphalt applied to the base material into which granules or other surfacing is embedded.
Pre-formed flange placed over a vent pipe to seal the roof around the vent pipe opening. Also called a vent sleeve.
Application of roll roofing in which all nails are driven into the underlying course of roofing and covered by a cemented, overlapping course. Nails are not exposed to the weather.
The change of water from to vapor to liquid when warm, moisture-laden air comes in contact with a cold surface.
That portion of the flashing attached to a vertical surface to prevent water from migrating behind the base flashing.
A row of shingles or roll roofing running the length of the roof.
Amount of weather protection provided by the roofing material. Depends on number of layers of material between the exposed surface of the roofing and the deck; i.e. single coverage, double coverage, etc.
A peaked saddle construction at the back of a chimney to prevent accumulation of snow and ice and to deflect water around the chimney.
The open portions of a strip shingle between the tabs.
The surface, installed over the supporting framing members, to which the roofing is applied.
The structural "skin" of a roof over which roofing in applied. Most new homes have decking made of plywood. There are four main types of decking commonly used on residential roofing projects: Plywood, OSB, Tongue and groove, Step sheathing.
A framed window unit projecting through the sloping plane of a roof.
Application of asphalt roofing such that the lapped portion is at least 2 inches wider than the exposed portion, resulting in two layers of roofing material over the deck.
A pipe for draining water from roof gutters. Also called a leader.
A non-corrosive, non-staining material used along the eaves and rakes to allow water run-off to drip clear of underlying construction.
Application of giant individual shingles with the long dimension parallel to the eaves.
Additional layer of roofing material applied at the eaves to help prevent damage from water back-up.
This is the lower, overhanging part of your roof. Typically down where the gutter is located is called the eave line.
Boards nailed along eaves and rakes after cutting back existing wood shingles to provide secure edges for re-roofing with asphalt shingles.
An extension of a building at right angles to its length.
Application of roll roofing in which all nails are driven into the cemented, overlapping course of roofing. Nails are exposed to the weather.
Vulnerability to the elements; to the action of heat or cold or wind or rain; "exposure to the weather."
Trim used to cover the rafter end of the eaves. Often where gutters are attached to the house.
Tapered wood filler strips placed along the butts of old wood shingles to create a level surface when re-roofing over existing wood shingles to provide secure edges for re-roofing with asphalt.
Fibrous material saturated with asphalt and used as an underlayment or sheathing paper.
Asphalt roofing base material manufactured from glass fiber.
Measurement used by independent labs to determine resistance to fire.
See asphalt roofing cement.
Pieces of metal or roll roofing used to prevent seepage of water into a building around any intersection or projection in a roof such as vent pipes, chimneys, adjoining walls, dormers and valleys. Galvanized metal flashing should be minimum 26-gauge.
Shingles that do not contain factory-applied strips or spots of self-sealing adhesive.
A type of roof containing sloping planes of the same pitch on each side of the ridge. Contains a gable at each end.
The upper portion of a sidewall that comes to a triangular point at the ridge of a sloping roof.
A type of roof containing two sloping planes of different pitch on each side of the ridge. The lower plane has a steeper slope than the upper. Contains a gable at each end.
Ceramic-coated colored crushed rock that is applied to the exposed surface of asphalt roofing products.
The trough that channels water from the eaves to the downspouts.
Shortest distance from the butt edge of an overlapping shingle to the upper edge of a shingle in the second course below. The triple coverage portion of the top lap of strip shingles.
Shingles that have the appearance of a hexagon after installation.
A type of roof containing sloping planes of the same pitch on each of four sides. Contains no gables.
Shingles used to cover the inclined external angle formed by the intersection of two sloping roof planes.
The inclined external angle formed by the intersection of two sloping roof planes. Runs from the ridge to the eaves.
Condition formed at the lower roof edge by the thawing and re-freezing of melted snow on the overhang. Can force water up and under shingles, causing leaks.
Individual shingles that mechanically fasten to each other to provide wind resistance.
Strip shingles containing more than one layer of tabs to create extra thickness. Also called three-dimensional shingles or architectural shingles.
Asphalt-based cement used to adhere overlapping plies of roll roofing.
To cover the surface of one shingle or roll with another.
Method of installing asphalt shingles on roof sloped between 2 and 4 inches per foot.
A type of roof containing two sloping planes of different pitch on each of four sides. The lower plane has a much steeper pitch than the upper, often approaching vertical. Contains no gables.
An asphalt-based primer used to prepare masonry surfaces for bonding with other asphalt products.
Asphalt-based sealant. Troweled, or applied by hand using rubber gloves. Other trades have other types of mastic products.
Roofing Nails, special screws and plates are used to fasten roof insulation and single ply membranes. Can be metal or plastic.
Finely ground limestone, slate, trap-rock or other inert materials added to asphalt coatings for durability and increased resistance to fire and weathering.
Asphalt shingles and roll roofing that are covered with granules.
Cap sheet or ply sheets that are manufactured with a modified rubber product. More tensile strength than regular asphalt products.
A method of re-roofing with new asphalt shingles over old shingles in which the top edge of the new shingle is butted against the bottom edge of the existing shingle tab.
Shingles consisting of a single, soled tab with no cutouts.
Any wood-based panel that does not contain veneer and carries an APA span rating, such as wafer board or oriented strand board.
Method of installing asphalt shingles on roof slopes between 4 inches and 21 inches per foot.
Method of valley construction in which shingles on both sides of the valley are trimmed along a chalk line snapped on each side of the valley. Shingles do not extend across the valley. Valley flashing is exposed.
An asphalt roofing base material manufactured from cellulose fibers.
That portion of the roof structure that extends beyond the exterior walls of a building.
Tile and other materials when purchased in quantity will come on a prebuilt wooden structure. This is a pallet and the place where a forklift would put the forks to lift the entire amount.
A low protective wall that extends above the roofline or balcony for support
The degree of roof incline expressed as the ratio of the rise, in feet, to the span, in feet.
The number of layers of roofing; i.e., one-ply, two-ply.
Reinforcing membrane sheet used in the cold overlay system.
Asphalt-based cement used to adhere tabs of strip shingles to the course below. Also used to adhere roll-roofing laps applied by the concealed nail method.
Roofing application method in which shingle courses are applied vertically up the roof rather than across and up. Not a recommended procedure.
The supporting framing member immediately beneath the deck, sloping from the ridge to the wall.
The inclined edge of a sloped roof over a wall from the eave to the ridge.
Shingles on which tabs vary in size and exposure.
A plastic or paper strip that is applied to the back of self-sealing shingles. This strip prevents the shingles from sticking together in the bundles, and need not be removed for application.
The uppermost, horizontal external angle formed by the intersection of two sloping roof planes.
Shingles used to cover the horizontal external angle formed by the intersection of two sloping roof planes.
The vertical distance from the eaves line to the ridge.
Asphalt roofing products manufactured in roll form.
A rigid board of various widths from ½"to 6", usually applied with some form of mechanical fasteners. When more than one layer is applied the second layer will applied with an adhesive, either hot or cold.
Saturated tape used with asphalt cements for flashing and patching asphalt roofing.
The horizontal distance from the eaves to a point directly under the ridge. One-half the span.
Asphalt used to impregnate an organic felt base material.
An asphalt-impregnated felt used as an underlayment between the deck and the roofing material.
Factory-applied adhesive that bonds shingle courses together when exposed to the heat of the sun after application.
That portion of roll roofing overlapped by the succeeding course to obtain double coverage.
Slight differences in shingle color that may occur as a result of normal manufacturing operations.
Exterior grade boards used as a roof deck material.
A roof containing only one sloping plane. Has no hips, ridges, valleys or gables.
Shingles containing factory-applied strips or spots of self-sealing adhesive.
Asphalt roofing that provides one layer of roofing material over the deck.
A rubber roof membrane that is applied with or without adhesive and is sealed and fastened at the laps of the material. Laps are sealed with heat welding using special hot air welders or special lap adhesive. Heat welding is the preferred method of sealing laps.
The degree of roof incline expressed as the ratio of the rise, in inches, to the run, in feet.
Roll roofing that is covered with ground talc or mica instead of granules.
The finished underside of the eaves.
A vent pipe that penetrates the roof.
The horizontal distance from eaves to eaves.
A unit of roof measure covering 100 square feet.
Shingles on which tabs are all the same size and exposure.
Asphalt roofing applied at the eaves that provides protection by filling in the spaces under the cutouts and joints of the first course of shingles.
Method of installing asphalt shingles on roof slopes greater than 21 inches per foot.
Flashing application method used where a vertical surface meets a sloping roof plane.
Asphalt shingles that are approximately three times as long as they are wide.
The exposed portion of strip shingles defined by cutouts.
See back surfacing.
Removal of existing roof membrane, necessary when applying new roof membrane in most cities in Southern California.
A shingle distortion that may arise when a new roof is applied over an uneven surface.
See laminated shingles.
That portion of the roofing covered by the succeeding course after installation.
The cap sheet has a coating of modified asphalt that is heated with torch just prior to application
Asphalt-saturated felt used beneath roofing to provide additional protection for the deck.
The internal angle formed by the intersection of two sloping roof planes to provide water runoff.
Any material used to prevent the passage of water vapor.
Any outlet for air that protrudes through the roof deck, such as a pipe or stack. Any device installed on the roof or gable for the purpose of ventilating the underside of the roof deck.
Method of valley construction in which shingles from both sides of the valley extend across the valley and are woven together by overlapping alternate courses as they are applied. The valley flashing is not exposed.
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